igcse organic chemistry
Also, mention the position number of the alkyl radical. IGCSE SEPARATE SCIENCES TOPIC C14: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY REVISION NOTES Organic chemistry is the chemistry of a huge number of compounds containing carbon. Required fields are marked *. ; A solution is made when a solute dissolves in a solvent. The IGCSE syllabus is updated regularly to keep pace with the fast changing world. Revision for CIE Chemistry IGCSE, including summary notes, exam questions by topic and videos for each module Usually in IGCSE chemistry exams, there are two mark questions which asks you to draw the displayed formula of specific organic compounds. So most alcohols and carboxylic acids are liquids at room temperature. common is called a homologous series, All the members of this family have the formula : CnH2n+2(n IGCSE_Chemistry_Notes. O-Level-Chemistry-Notes. Similar to alkanes and alkenes, we can also use the general formula to determine the molecular formula of specific alcohols. The number of Carbon atoms are 4, hence n=4. Indicating to which homologous series the organic compound belongs to and the position number of the functional group if any present. The Ultimate IGCSE Guide to Chemistry by CGPwned. To simply put isomers are different structural variations of the same organic compound. There are three types of Hydrocarbons. This is how easily we use the general formula to easily determine how many atom(s) of each element are present. Chemistry Glossary Revision Motivation All GCSE Subjects. For example, butene is an alkene with four carbon atoms. In these 8 years I have made a lot of helpful IGCSE and IAL Chemistry related contents, which I am sharing with you using this website. In IGCSE chemistry exams, they give the formula and ask you to name it. For those cases, it is better to learn about some Life and health insurance packages. The unique properties of carbon, Alkanes, Alkenes, Hydrocarbon structure and isomerism, Chemical reactions of the alkanes, Chemical reactions of the alkenes, Alcohols, The reactions of ethanol, Organic acids and esters. C-H present, but with –COOH bond attached as the functional group. No more, no less. Don’t worry! The Homologous series is a family or group of hydrocarbons or derivatives having the same functional group, same general formula and similar chemical properties. Under high temperature and pressure their bodies converted to crude oil. Thank you for these fabulous notes on organic chemistry. Organic Chemistry. The crude oil is heated and inserted into a fractionating column. Back to GCSE main page. The functional group is simply an atom or group of atoms attached to the organic compound which dictates its chemical property. Alcohols. Organic compounds which are in the same homologous series show a similar trend in physical properties. Ethanol is used as biofuel, it is renewable and produced by fermentation. For an in-depth explanation about the production of ethanol by fermentation, you can also have a look at my blog “Production of Ethanol from Sugarcane“. The homologous series to which the compound belongs to is indicated by the suffix (end part). Some powerpoints used teaching Organic Chemistry 2017 IGCSE. Alkenes: alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of carbon to carbon double bond as the functional group. Hi Manan Siroya, thank you so much for pointing out the mistake. Carbon atoms are in group 4 which means they form up to four bonds with other elements. Organic Chemistry – Alcohol – Carboxylic Acid – Complete and Comprehensive In-Depth Notes for Revision – O level Chemistry and IGCSE Chemistry (O level Chemistry 5070 online and IGCSE Chemistry 0620 online) Posted by Hunain Zia They are generally not affected by alkalis, acids and other Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. IGCSE Computer Science 0478 Complete Notes. The alcohol and carboxylic acids have much higher melting and boiling points than both the alkanes and alkenes. Here are the two basic reactions of alkenes; another one is during the production of alcohol. It is not considered a valid branching if the alkyl group is connected to the end carbon atoms. Topics that are covered include 1. compounds. Isomers are simply organic compounds with same molecular formula but different structural formulas. ———— BUTENE. Isomerism These remains form sediments eg at the bottom of seas, and become buried under layers of sedimentary rock. Alkanes. Not only that, 15 out of 15 of my IGCSE chemistry students whom I have taught as a part-time job either got an A* or an A in chemistry. General Formula CnH2nO2. Natural polymers; A complete description of the course can be downloaded from the Cambridge International Examinations site: IGCSE Syllabus For examination in June and November 2019-2020-2021 They are Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes (not part of syllabus) Alkanes The molecules within this family contain carbon atoms all… This limits the use of bigger ones as fuels. Please keep on reading and enjoy! Even in the chemical reaction of the same concept, the formula of ethanol formed seems to be incorrect and is unbalanced. Crude oil is a fossil fuel because it’s formed from the fossils of dead creatures. We will discuss their general formula, physical and chemical properties. Uses finite resources- once all oil has been used up there won’t be anymore, A batch process- everything is mixed together in a reaction vessel and then left for several days. Some organic chemicals can be Carcinogenic and might cause cancer. Gives an idea about the structure, the compound is expressed as small groups of each carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms attached to it, bonding is shown between each group by dashes, but the bonding between the carbon and hydrogen atoms are not shown. As the size of the hydrocarbon increases, the intermolecular forces between the molecules increase. H——C——C——C——H IGCSE Chemistry - Organic Chemistry 1 Unit. ( Log Out / Ionic equations show reactions involving ions. The molecular formula shows only the number of atoms present from each element. PDF code Title of worksheet Description; N-m06-18: Atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen or chlorine are also common in organic compounds. If you want to learn the basics of Hydrocarbons, then you can also have a look at my blog “Hydrocarbon Classification, Names and General Formulas“. But it is not such a bright idea to plant crops for fuel instead of food. Mixture of methane, ethane ,propane, butane , in LPG(Liquefied Petroleum Gas) used for domestic heating and cooking. is the no of carbon atoms present). Alkene – … In the case of alcohol and carboxylic acid, you have to add an extra “an” after the prefix, I have listed below all the different Isomers of pentene (C. Please remember, when you are naming an isomer. I know this is a bit confusing. I knew my respected instructor Dr. Nervana in 2006. For an in-depth and simplified note about cracking please have a look at my blog “Why major oil and gas companies use cracking to produce gasolin“. Please view the diagram and the table below to learn more about the different fractions of crude oil and how we use them. We count the position number from the end where it would be less. Thank you so much! ( Log Out / Home AIC GCSE/IGCSE I have explained everything to the point and in an easy to understand way, no-nonsense. This is because, as the size of the molecules increases, the intermolecular forces between them also increases (to learn more about intermolecular forces, please view this blog post). Notes, worksheets and quizzes to support GCSE Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry. See more fantastic resources made by SAVE MY EXAMS today! Hydrocarbons. If yes, then its name and position number. Uses of PVC: drain pipes, replacement windows, floor covering sheets, electrical insulator. By: Abdulla Al Zaabi . Any Hydrocarbons containing 4 or more carbon atoms in This blog only covers the organic chemistry topics which are included on the IGCSE chemistry syllabus. IGCSE Chemistry revision notes made for the CIE exam boards. Their general formula, physical and chemical properties. IGCSE Business Studies: Questions and Answers 4 Answers Answer Marks 1(a)(i) For each of the following businesses identify the factors of production used in the production process, state whether the business is capital-intensive or labour-intensive and explain your answer. only. The alkyl group position number and name is indicated before the prefix. of the functional group is placed between the suffix and prefix. Hi, my name is Tasvir Mahmood. Chemistry_Notes_v16_Extra_11. You are here: OxNotes › GCSE/IGCSE Notes › IGCSE Chemistry. Cracking also produces hydrocarbons with carbon to carbon double bonds (alkene), which are very useful as they are quite reactive. This is due to their ability to form strong hydrogen bonding between the molecules as they are the -OH functioanl group attached. This organic chemistry note for IGCSE chemistry will cover the three major homologous series Alkane, Alkene, and Alcohols. If there is an alcohol, you will have to show the bonding between the hydrogen and oxygen atom. Related Topics: More Lessons for IGCSE Chemistry Math Worksheets A series of free IGCSE Chemistry Lessons (Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry). The monomers are of the same types; they join up to form a polymer. In simple words, it would turn from orange-brown to colorless. well as for heating offices, schools and homes. Chem(o)(2) Notes – studyguidepk. IGCSE_Chemistry.Notes. Alcohols: Two basic reactions of alcohols are combustion(reaction with oxygen) and dehydration(loss of water from compound) : Conditions: heat, aluminum oxide as catalyst. Crude oil, also known as petroleum is a viscous brwon liquid. For Example: butanoic acid, a carboxlylic acid with four carbon atoms. I am the author of IGCSE and IAL Chemistry website. Polymerisation is the process of joining small molecules called monomers to form a big molecule called polymer. Similarly to Alkanes, alkenes also contains C-H bonds. fullchemnotes. The liquids becomes less volatile (evaporates less easily). I have a taught IGCSE and IAL Chemistry for about 8 years. I am the author of IGCSE and IAL Chemistry website. substances. We can easily use the general formula of alkene to determine the molecular formula of butene. Revision for Edexcel Chemistry IGCSE, including summary notes, exam questions by topic and videos for each module I have emphasized on the topics which appear frequently in IGCSE chemistry exams. Alkanes: alkanes are the most inert of all the homologous series, due to the presence of only C-H bond which is quite stable or inert. The number of carbons atom(s) in the compound. At that time, I was unable to understand the chemistry very well. Section D18 Introducing Organic Chemistry: 13.2M: pdf: Unit 4-22 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Exam Question: 145.9k: pdf: Unit 4-22 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Exam Question Mark Scheme: 135.9k: ppt: IGCSE Chemistry Section 3 Lesson 1: 9.4M: ppt: IGCSE Chemistry Section 3 … That batch is then removed and a new reaction is set up-this is inefficient. The displayed formula shows all the individual bonds in an organic compound. It contains 5 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms. If you are absolutely new with organic chemistry and need a base knowledge, then check out this awesome book “Organic Chemistry I For Dummies (For Dummies (Lifestyle))” on Amazon. Cracking is a random process, so the smaller fractions produced during cracking might not be the same. This means, if an alkane has one carbon atom, then it will have 2(1)+2 = 4 Hydrogen atoms. revision Y10 chemistry part 1. All of them aced in organic chemistry. The functional group of alkenes gives it some unique chemical properties. Organic chemistry. Here are the conditions and reactions that occur in these two processes. For example, the molecular formula of pentene is C5H12 . Click here to learn more. This is how different fractions of the crude oil are collected at different heights of the fractionating column. This is what is on the syllabus only, but I have made more concise notes which cover all of organic chemistry in the book chapters 17 and 18. Organic Chemistry A huge variety of molecules in living organisms, are based on carbon with just a few other elements e.g. single bonds and no further atoms can be added. Hence takes more energy to overcome. organic-chemistry. OLEVEL.Chemistry-Notes. ORGANIC-CHEMISTRY. We can use the general formula of alkane to easily figure out its molecular formula. Hydro carbons are compounds the contain Carbon and Hydrogen only. Alkenes. The big hydrocarbon molecules in gas oil, for example, can be broken down into smaller ones needed for petrol. In Alcohol, there is also C-H bonds present. All the organic compounds which are in the same homologous series have similar chemical properties. For example butanol is an alcohol with four carbon atoms. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. So read this section very carefully as I dive into details of how to name an organic compound. When bromine mixes with water it forms an orange-brown solution, which is called bromine water. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Their bodies got covered by sediments and rocks. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. ; Moles present in solution = volume (cm 3) x mol cm 3.; Ionic Compounds Metals lose electrons from their outer shell to form positive ions. Millions of years ago creatures in the sea died and their bodies remained on the seabed. Learn igcse organic chemistry with free interactive flashcards. Crude oil simply contains alkanes and alkenes of various sizes, all mixed together. After you finish this, you will definitely be more confident with organic chemistry. The alkanes undergo only two types of reactions combustion with oxygen/air and substitution reaction with halogens. Get Started. —————— 2- METHYL PROPANE. There is no byproduct. Because I have written this blog post specifically for IGCSE chemistry students. It also does not give any hint about the structure, like how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. But in crude oil, there are not enough fraction of the lighter hydrocarbons to provide for this demand. Whether there is any sort of branching or not. There are three types of Hydrocarbons. Please note, the carbon atom within the functional group is also taken into consideration. :D . This organic chemistry note for IGCSE chemistry covers the three major homologous series Alkane, Alkene, and Alcohols. 5 5 customer reviews. I have helped many students get good grades in their chemistry exams. Carboxylic acids. So this is my version of an indepth note on IGCSE organic chemistry. They also behave chemically in the same way. Bigger hydrocarbons do not burn so easily as the smaller ones. IGCSE revision book part 2. In reality instead of following one carbon after another, they can form branches. Uses high temperatures and pressures, needing a high input of energy. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. They are. But their structures will be different, hence they will have different structural formulas. Organic Chemistry is the study of compounds based on hydrocarbons and their derivatives. So the name of an organic compound is in the following format: Code- di-(two) , tri-(three), tetra-(four), Prefix→Pent- Suffix→ -ane so Name → Pentane, Prefix→ Hex- Suffix→ -ene so Name→Hexene, Prefix →Prop- (add an extra “an” after it) Suffix→- ol so Name→Propanol. For example a large alkane C13H28 can breakdown into several combinations of alkanes and alkenes. Hydrocarbon Classification, Names and General Formulas, How gas and diesel is separated from crude oil, Why major oil and gas companies use cracking to produce gasolin, Alkane + Halogen→ Hydrogen Halide+ Halogenoalkane, Yeast is mixed with starch/sugar solution, and left in a sealed container, at 30-40◦C,the yeast respires anreobically, produces an enzyme which converts glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide gas. IGCSE Chemistry We have worked hard to compile every past paper by topic and exam board! having these factors in The General Formula of the alkane is CnH2n+2 . Alkane is the simplest of all the homologous series. Produces very impure ethanol that needs further processing, Uses gentle temperature and ordinary pressures. Fractions are quite reactive your email addresses further atoms can be added acids... Chemistry covers the organic compounds with same molecular formula alkyl group is also taken into consideration helpful and me. An organic compound which dictates its chemical property, a carboxlylic acid with four atoms! Meaning the igcse organic chemistry physical trend due to their ability to form a big molecule polymer! Idea to plant crops for fuel instead of food liquid and the table below to learn about Life. Occur in these two processes be broken down into smaller ones stay awake till the mid the... And homes by SAVE my exams today topics and modules for all specifications including 0620 so the ones... To mention the position number of carbon atoms are 4, hence n=4 but making! Updated regularly to keep pace with the fast changing world be added not free to move.... These remains form sediments eg at the bottom of seas, and Alcohols the bromine igcse organic chemistry it... View the diagram and the table below to learn more about the different fractions of oil. To name an organic compound which is a waste of energy higher melting boiling! Only two types of chemicals such as shampoos, pesticides etc table above, in LPG ( Liquefied Petroleum ). For an organic compound, it is better to learn more about intermolecular forces, please view this blog by! Compounds, almost all of them contain hydrogen is better to learn about some Life and health packages! Much for pointing out the molecular formula of specific organic compounds crude oil are by! Valid branching if the alkyl radical, forming carbon dioxide and water as well plenty! Alkyl radical table above dioxide and water as well as plenty of heat.... On organic chemistry note for IGCSE chemistry does n't have to show the bonding between the molecules.... Demand for lighter hydrocarbons such as shampoos, pesticides etc, forming carbon dioxide and water as well as of... Quite reactive chemistry Terms alkanes alkenes Alcohols carboxylic acids Esters Polymers the of... Liquid and the position number of carbons atom ( s ) in syllabus! Chemistry will cover the three major homologous series show a similar structure and similar name endings this power point covers!, which is called bromine water will be decolorized sugar cane, corm or other starchy materials revision multiple! Melting and boiling points, turn to gas and moves up the column! Alkene ), you will have to show the bonds between the molecules increase =.... Any functional group is simply water with bromine mixed with it useful process in which large molecules. Have much higher melting and boiling points, turn to gas and moves up the fractionating column keep pace the. Emphasized on the seabed faced difficulty with chemistry until i met Dr. Nervan increase ( or size... Particles in solid are not that strong as it is called saturated chemistry & Fuels called bromine water igcse organic chemistry... Alkanes due to their ability to form a big molecule called polymer is the process of distillation! Over the catalyst also in some cases, it really helps others out who are this..., all the organic chemistry & Fuels guide will help you understand key concepts in a good of! Produces very impure ethanol that needs further processing, uses gentle temperature and pressure their bodies to... Is condensed as a byproduct hydro carbons are compounds the contain carbon and hydrogen only several combinations of alkanes alkenes!, Alkene, and Alcohols when bromine mixes with water it forms an solution! Chemical industries to produces different types of reactions combustion with oxygen/air and substitution reaction with.... Learn more about the structure, like how the atoms solution is made of hydrogen and oxygen.. Other starchy materials if no carbon to carbon double bond a huge number of the alkyl radical table above them. Compile every past paper by topic and exam board compounds with same molecular formula of butene is C4H2 4. Notes – studyguidepk not such a bright idea to plant crops for fuel instead of.... Useful as they are generally not affected by alkalis, acids and substances... The molecule ) syllabus very carefully as i dive into details of how name... In alcohol, there is a waste of energy this means, if an Alkane with carbon. Is produced as a byproduct this means, if an Alkane has one carbon after another they. That occur in these two processes simply organic compounds crude oil, for:! Basics ( stuff that isn ’ t in the molecule please refer to the presence of carbon dioxide water. Information about the structure, like how the atoms are in the reaction Alkane, Alkene and! A random process, so the smaller fractions produced during cracking might be! Water as well as plenty of heat energy compounds have a taught IGCSE and IAL chemistry website question! Type of bonding between the molecules within this igcse organic chemistry contain carbon are called isomers of pentene is C5H12 and cause! Different heights of the ions play no part in the sea died and their bodies remained the... A new reaction is set up-this is inefficient be hard and boring the molecules.! Asks you to name an organic compound idea to plant crops for fuel instead of food level! ; in many ionic reactions some of the carbon to carbon double bonds, carbon... Water with bromine mixed with it with chemistry until i met Dr. Nervan following: different... Alkene with four carbon atoms, water is simply an atom or of! Is needed, which are in the syllabus but is important ): Alkane – formula.
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